“Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all?” Well, according to the top touring pros and the Seven Dwarfs, it’s the Oak Hill Country Club in Rochester. For this venue is regarded, almost universally, as the fairest but most challenging course on the US major circuit.
When Oak Hill Golf Club started out in life back in 1901, golf was played on a barren rudimentary nine-hole course set close to the banks of the Genesee River. Things at the club remained low key until the beginning of the 1920s. Or so the members thought. Little did they know that the University of Rochester had their hearts set on a new riverside campus, which they wanted to develop on the site of the Oak Hill course. Fortunately, for Oak Hill, the rich University had land and cash to spare and a trade-off took place – 350 acres of farmland plus $360,000 for 85 riverside acres.
Naturally Oak Hill grasped the golden opportunity and commissioned Donald Ross to build two courses on the new site at Pittsford. Tens of thousands of oak trees were planted, and the new Oak Hill gradually started to take shape.
Before play commenced in the 1956 US Open at Oak Hill, Ben Hogan suggested that the East course was not hard enough to host this top event. After missing a short putt on the penultimate hole and losing by one shot to Cary Middlecoff, Hogan changed his tune and declared Oak Hill’s opening hole to be the toughest he’d ever played.
Since then, Oak Hill has been a regular US Open and USPGA venue and only the world’s very best golfers have managed to better the Oak Hill par.
The venerable Oak Hill is in fact the only club to have played host to the U.S. Open, PGA Championship, Ryder Cup, U.S. Amateur, Senior U.S. Open and Senior PGA Championship. The PGA Championship returned to Oak Hill in 2013 after a ten-year gap when, in 2003, Shaun Micheel became a surprise major winner.
The PGA Championship will return to Rochester in 2023, by which time the club will have completed a much-needed major course renovation. Work started in August 2019 with the rebuilding of all greens and bunkers. Oak Hill’s aim is to return the East course back to Donald Ross's intent using the Scotsman’s original drawings.
Jeff Sluman, who competed in the 2019 Senior PGA at
Oak Hill, is assisting renovation expert Andrew Green, whose experience includes
renovations at Merion, Shinnecock Hills, Pine Valley and Oakmont.
Oak Hill is a classic club and a classic course, however, over time it has been diluted and changed from its original Donald Ross design. Nevertheless, the course retains good “bones” and some fabulous holes. The 5th is a memorable, and difficult, par four with a tee shot that plays through a chute of trees and with a green fronted by a little creek. The seventh is a world class hole and is aptly named “Creek’s Elbow.” The challenge starts with a VERY narrow fairway to hit off the tee, and you have to avoid a creek on the right and a line of trees on the left. As if it weren’t challenging enough, the green is tiny. The strategic nature of the hole comes in because if you aim left and manage to hit the sliver of fairway you have an easier and shorter shot to the green. Laying back to avoid the stream leaves a long shot to the small green. It demands that the golfer think through what they are about to do and execute it with precision. The 600 yard (!) 13th hole even gives the pros fits; a par five that almost no one can reach in two. It has a creek running down the right-hand side and it crosses the fairway in the middle of the hole. The course is named Oak Hill for a reason, and the 13th sums it up nicely. As if 600 yards isn’t long enough, it also plays up hill in a meaningful way. And the club’s signature oak trees frame the green. The club recently began to restore the course back to Ross’s original intent, so hopefully it will be returned to its full former glory soon. For now, it remains a stern test of golf with an elegant clubhouse and atmosphere to match its rich history.
The famous East course from Donald Ross is a beast. What many would call a modern day, relatively long slog. Characterized by long holes with relatively narrow fairways that are tree lined. Two characteristics that have little to do with Donald Ross and his original intent for the course. Originally this property was designed with no trees and realistically far more short grass. Why do I believe this? Well other than what you can read, the greens as many Ross grees are excellent and made to be approached with strategy and from the correct angles. The narrowness of the present day course as a result of the trees and the deep rough are hardly what Ross would of envisioned. Not to mention the fact that these would have been added much later to compensate for new equipment and the length of the modern day game the pros are playing.
Fair is fair and Oak Hill is a great course with a wonderful championship pedigree however, given the members recently voted a complete restoration it’s clear that it has become something other than what Ross initially intended. I for one have very high hopes that the course returns to it’s old glory and managed to maintain the challenge for the pros at the same time. It’s a tough trade until action is taken to alter the ball allowing the preservation of Golden Age courses like this.
The course plays over wonderful golf terrain and rolling hills. The greens which are typical Ross greens and often crowned or with significant undulations need to be approached with much care and precision. Landing above the hole will result in terrifying putts on nearly every occasion.
The absolute low point of the course lies with the par 3 15th (check this #). A beautiful short par 3 that has morphed into something so far from anything Ross ever designed I had to fight back the taste of throw up in my mouth. This one right out of Fazio’s most modern design. Again a beautiful hole tragically out of place on this Golden Age gem. I would wager this one will significantly change when the course is restored to former glory.
The par 5, 13th and par 4 finishing holes both play up to the clubhouse in iconic fashion. Both with elevated greens. The 13th playing up hills to a steep sloping back to front green and the final hole playing over a small valley with deep rough and a steep slope all the way up to the severely back to front sloping green. The final holes give an all or nothing feel on the approach. One thing is for sure you definitely want to hit that green in two or lay-up and play a short iron into the green which will potentially save many a shot.
(NOTE: review written a couple years ago and I believe the course has been completely renovated, which must be a complete delight so hopefully one day I will be able to return and reassess. I'm told they brought Ross back.)
Oak Hill’s East course is ideal for major championship golf as it’s a never-ending long slog. The very first hole is an immediate introduction to the skill needed to play this course. Its index 1 right out of the gate and plays more than 475 yards over a creek with thick rough lining the doglegged fairway.
The topography at Oak Hill is relatively tame with approximately 20 feet change in elevation in places, but the sheer length of almost every par 4 with many uphill approach shots to ‘cereal bowl’ Ross greens makes this layout brutal beyond words. The rough is kept dense and the mature trees are large which dominate many sight lines tightening up plenty of protected landing areas.
There are proposed plans in the near future to make a number of dramatic changes to the course to make it “more Ross like” which I struggled to grasp as none of the proposed changes are original. Such changes include the construction of a new par 3 on the front side to a green which currently serves as a practice green in the far corner of the property, and renovating the par 3 15th hole which was built by Tom Fazio. The routing will be reconfigured and existing holes/features will be retired.
The East course will always be the highlight of the club, but it will challenge you constantly – resulting in less frequent play by the regulars.
So much of the conversation the Empire State involves discussion of courses hailing from either Long Island or Westchester. That's understandable. The two areas are littered with the best depth of private clubs in all of America in my mind. To its credit, Oak Hill in Rochester has steadfastly maintained a presence through the hosting of key national events and in '95 when hosting the Ryder Cup Matches where Team Europe vanquished the American side.
The initial qualities Donald Ross provided should have been sufficient for the club. Yes, it's fine to engage another architect to restore old time elements, but not to the point where the newest hire indelibly places his/her fingerprints on the layout.
After the 1968 US Open in which an unknown -- at that time -- named Lee Trevino tied the 72-hole championship record set a year earlier by Jack Nicklaus at Baltusrol. The club believed certain fundamental changes were needed in order to strengthen the course for future hosting of major championships. Tom Fazio was brought into the picture in the 1970's and the changes created provided a clear split between the core Ross elements and the new ones inserted.
Sad to say, but often when clubs hire an architect there's an attempt -- whether consciously or unconsciously -- for the new architect to feel compelled to alter the landscape.
A great example of this comes with the dynamic short uphill par-4 14th which Ross created. The hole is simple in its presentation but devilish in terms of securing the lowest number. When you get the par-3 15th you encounter a clear example of a hole that provides your basic Fazio inclusion. The holes don't match and the course experience suffers because of it.
Restoration is neither a small task nor fully appreciated by many architects. The original intent should be studied rigorously before as much as the first tablespoon of turf is moved about. Club leaders intent on chasing major events can be seduced by the siren's call and sacrifice so much in the process.
The East is a demanding layout and much of that is tied to the added tee boxes included over the years. Once can see this clearly with the ultra-demanding long par-4's at the 17th and 18th holes.
The club has seen fit to eliminate way too many trees that previously existed but more on this front can happen too.
A winding creek so much a part of a number of holes on the outward half shows the brilliance of Ross. The opening hole is rightly touted by Ben Hogan as one of the strongest openers in American golf.
The PGA Championship will return to the East Course again in '23 -- but in the month of May. The timing will clearly push the facility to be ready so early in the season. Personally, I'd like to see the club restore the Ross features but it's doubtful given the significant investment the club has already spent to get the layout it has now.
The lesson learned is a simple one -- when making changes to a highly acclaimed course be forewarned the "improvements" may actually result in a significant setback than one was actually hoping to happen.
by M. James Ward
After playing Oakhill last summer, I thought it was great but rankings are a little high. Upon reflection, I agree with the rankings. The one thing I didn't like was the narrowness and how penalizing it was if you missed the fairway. If I missed the fairway, trees usually prevented me from going for the green.
I haven't played other courses in Rochester, NY, but driving in all I could think was this was perfect land for golf. It has rolling hills, but they are not severe like mountain golf. Oak Hill has a good layout with great hole after great hole. The greens are unmistakably championship Donald Ross greens.
If they opened up the course a little bit with some tree removal, I would say it is Top 25 worthy in the U.S.